Pearl Farming In India Cost, Profit, Business Plan, Requirements | SkillsAndTech

Pearl Farming In India Cost, Profit, Business Plan, Requirements | SkillsAndTech

Nowadays, pearl farming in India is gaining momentum, and many farmers have minted huge profits by doing this form of aquaculture business in the last few years. It can be managed with limited human resources and is one of the thriving farming businesses that yield outstanding profits with low investment and less labour. 

In the past course of time, training for pearl farming was provided in the Central Institute of Fresh Water Aquaculture located in Bhubaneswar (Orissa). However, now various other institutes are involved in conducting training in the state.

What is a Pearl?

Popularly regarded as a natural masterpiece, the pearl is generated from the mollusk as well as the raising and production of a pearl. The entire process through which the generation of pearl takes place is called pearl culture. All those who are interested in commencing pearl farming won’t face any difficulty in operating freshwater pearl culture. In the present course, the demand for pearl in the global market is increasing at an accelerating pace. There is plenty of its utilization in numerous forms, especially in the grocery realm.

Due to the increasing population at an alarming rate, the stock of pearl is reducing. Pearl farming in India is a profitable business venture for farmers and farming business enthusiasts & is also too simple compared to different types of businesses in demand because there is no significant requirement for any food to form a pearl.

You may go for a Google search on the basis of your location, and you will get an institute where knowledge and proper training is imparted concerning pearl farming.

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How to Do Pearl Farming in India?

  • The time of autumn, i.e., the period between October and December, is viewed as a perfect season for pearl cultivation in India.
  • In a pond of around 10 x 10 feet or larger, beads can be cultivated.
  • For pearl cultivation, pearls can be produced in a small pond such as o.4 ha pond from a maximum of 25000 oysters.
  • To initiate farming, the farmer would have to obtain oysters from the river, pond, etc., or they may also get purchased.
  • After this, simple as well as designed beads with a diameter of about four to six mm such as Ganesha, floral shape, Buddha, and more are put inside it after every minor operation in all the oysters.
  • Then, the oyster is closed.
  • All these oysters are stored in a safe mode in nylon bags for ten days on anti-biotic as well as natural feed.
  • These are monitored regularly, and the removal of dead oysters takes place.
  • Now, all these oysters are put in the ponds.
  • For the purpose of this, they are hung in nylon bags (2 oysters for every bag) using bamboo/ bottle & left at a depth of about one meter within the pond.
  • At the rate of 20,000 to 30,000 oysters per hectare, these can be followed.
  • The material is coming from inside initiates to settle near the bead, which is likely to take the form of pearl at some point.
  • After 8 to 10 months, the oyster gets ripped off & the pearl is pulled out.

Types of Pearls

Given below is a list of different varieties of Pearl-

  • Freshwater Cultured Pearl
  • Keshi Pearl
  • Natural pearl
  • Japanese Cultured Pearl
  • Seawater Cultured Pearl (salt water)
  • Cultured Pearl &
  • Mabe Pearl
  • Pearl Farming

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All the above-mentioned varieties of pearls are available in eight different shapes. Those eight shapes are-

  • Baroque
  • Button
  • Round
  • Semi-round
  • Oval
  • Pear
  • Circled Drop,
  • & Double Bouldered

However, the demand for perfectly rounded & shiner Pearl is high and are more valuable. Usually, Seawater Cultured Pearl (salt water), Natural pearl, and Freshwater Cultured Pearl are cultivated more by the farmers.

Natural Pearl

It is concerned with the formation of nacre close to the foreign body which came within a mollusk. The shape and structure of the pearl depend up to a great extent on the original/authentic shape of the foreign body.

Artificial Pearl

It’s just a firm/solid body that comes in pearl shape, which is mostly coated with a synthetic material. They are actually not a pearl.

Cultured Pearl

It’s a form of interfering of man to put a foreign body within the mollusk. This form of pearl can be cultured anywhere within the water.

Cost & Profits Associated with Pearl Farming in India

  • The cost of a single oyster is around 20 to 30 rupees.
  • In the market, the price of one mm to 20 mm oyster pearl lies in the range of Rs 300 and Rs 1500.
  • In the current scenario, designer beads are getting good response in the Indian as well as international market, which get a good price.
  • Huge amount of profits can be reaped by exporting pearls to the international market rather than sticking to the Indian market.
  • After taking out the pearl from the oyster, the sale of oyster can be made in the market.
  • Several decorative stuffs are prepared by the oyster.
  • On a large scale, the work of extracting perfume oil from oysters’ takes place in Kannauj, due to which oyster may also get sold in the local market on an immediate basis.
  • The water of rivers, as well as ponds, is also purified by oysters, thereby controlling the problems associated with water pollution.

Major Pearl Producing Nations All Over the World

On a global level, Japan is considered as the major producer of pearls. Given below is the list of countries which are known as major pearl producing players throughout the world.

  • Japan
  • Australia
  • India
  • China
  • South Seas
  • Vietnam
  • UAE
  • Mexico
  • USA
  • Fiji
  • France
  • Philippines
  • Indonesia
  • Myanmar

Pearl Farming in India: Where to take Training?

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  • Training in pearl farming in India is being conducted at the Central Institute of Fresh Water Aquaculture, Bhubaneswar.
  • This institute is widely known for imparting meaningful, technical training concerning the production of pearl to rural youth, farmers as well as students.
  • Farmers Help also provides technical training related to pearl production to farmers along with the students.
  • This institution is gaining appreciation as it is running training programs in Hapur.
  • Training program related to the cultivation of pearl is also being organized at Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Ganiwan, located in Chitrakoot district.


Registration of Firm:

You may start the small to medium Business either a Proprietorship or Partnership Firm.

If you are starting this Business as One Person Company, then you have to register your firm as a proprietorship.

For Partnership operation, you have to register as a limited liability partnership (LLP) or Pvt. Ltd. Company with
Registrar of Companies (ROC).

GST Registration:

it is mandatory to get the GST number to run the business; you need to apply for the GST registration.

Trade License:

obtain trade license from local authorities

MSME/SSI Registration:

this MSME/SSI Registration will help you to get schemes and facility for the business offers by the state government

BIS certification:

BIS has mentioned the specific quality standard for Business. ISI specification for the

Trade Mark:

you can secure your brand with trademark registration

IEC code: 

IEC code is essential for the export of the product


state insurance which is an insurance scheme for workers.

ESI Registration:

Employees provident fund is compulsory for the business where more than 20 employees are working.

To comply with the above processes and registration, one might need any legal expert who would help in absolute legal compliance to meet industrial standards. 

Points to Keep in Mind

  • Firstly, you need to dedicate your precious time and need to put extra efforts along with initial investment as the project concerning pearl farming in India a long-term project.
  • You would have to opt for a secured place or location for establishing a commercial pearl farming business in India. It must be free from floods, predators, as well as other threats.
  • You need to have an excellent source of Oysters in order to culture in the pond.
  • In addition to this, you should have outstanding skills in grafting exercises in pearl culture as it is vital for pearl farming projects.

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  • You must visit already established pearl farms close to your surrounding in order to gain tips on freshwater pearl culture.                                     
  • Eventually, you must fix a great marketing channel to sell the pearls prepared on your farms.
  • Proceed ahead for composing a business plan for pearl farming in India encompassing different financial aspects of the farm, from purchasing mussels to marketing pearls in different markets.


Pearl Farming in India holds an extensive scope for farmers who are looking for something big and productive in the current scenario. The demand for pearl is not confined to Indian boundaries. In the international market, there is a consistent growth in the demand for pearl giving wings to the pearl farming business.

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